Energy & Power Systems
- Taming Diesel Subsidy to Curtail Inflation and Foster Economic Growth: Government is reluctant to raise diesel price fully for fear that it might lead to inflation, even though administered price of petroleum products leads to large under-recoveries. Partial financing of under-recoveries by the government is done by direct budgetary support and indirectly by the Public sector oil marketing companies (OMCs) and upstream oil companies (ONGC and OIL). These high levels of under-recoveries raise the fiscal deficit, which in turn leads to higher money supply resulting in higher inflation prompting Reserve Bank to raise interest rate that lowers investment and economic growth rate over time. While steps have been taken by the government to decontrol prices of petrol, LPG and kerosene, diesel continues to be heavily subsidized, as a change in status quo may lead to inflation in the short term. To explore this trade-off between short term impact and medium term outcomes, IRADe has conducted a study titled ‘Taming Diesel Subsidy to Curtail Inflation and Foster Economic Growth’. The aim of the study is to assess the alternative road maps for diesel price reform in India.
- Overview and Assessment of Indian Renewable Energy and Rural Electrification: This inception study on Renewable Energy Component of the Indo-German Energy Programme gives an overview and assessment of the National and State policies to promote renewable energies, rural electrification and relevant issues in rural development. Along with it the relevant institutions and stakeholders of the GOI programmes, were covered that are to guide energy investment in this sector. Study was sponsored by GTZ.
- Indian Renewable Energy Status Report – Background Report for DIREC 2010: The “Indian Renewable Energy Status Report” was considered as a background report for the DIREC (Delhi International Renewable Energy Conference) 2010 on behalf of the “Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century – REN21”. Basis of this report was a study from the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) for the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Natural Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). In addition to GTZ the report was produced with the collaboration of experts from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), REN21 and BRIDGE TO INDIA Pvt. Ltd.
Sponsored by: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusamenarbeit (GIZ, formerly GTZ – German Technical Cooperation) http://www.giz.de
- Analysis of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology in the Power Sector in India: In the study of CCS technology in relation to India’s Power Sector, IRADe projected emissions of CO2 from power plants in future, carried out literature survey to identify developments in carbon capture technology and evaluated each technology for its economical and technical viability. Specification of sequestration sites, identification of the way forward for development, evaluation of monitoring options of CCS, regulatory issues were discussed . The study provides an opportunity for policy makers to engage in debates. The study recommended that the impact of CCS on the cost of power generation should be assessed with various options to define appropriate technology and costs under Indian conditions.Sponsored by The Department of Science and Technology, (GoI).
Techno-Economic Assessment for Bio-energy in India : ” The study reflects on various issues of bio-energy in India and identifies prioritized investment opportunities for technology development and its market adaptation under appropriate policies. The study found that among various bio energy options in India, biodiesel, bio ethanol and biomass gasification are found to be most relevant areas, where investments for technology and marketing development could be made. Wastelands could be used for growing oil seed plants for producing biodiesel, irrigated land for sugarcane based ethanol production and small plots in village location be used for producing fuel wood for gasification. Thus their land requirements are complementary, though they do compete with other uses.
Sponsored by Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC).
- Impact of Fuel Scarcity and Pollution on Rural Poor, 2004 Himachal Pradesh: The project was funded by Global Development Network (GDN) through its regional working group (SANEI) South Asian Network, New Delhi. The research project assessed the impact of scarcity of clean fuels and traditional fuels. It assessed in economic terms the impact of pollution from the use of traditional bio-fuels on vulnerable groups of rural poor in Himachal Pradesh in the context of their socio-economic circumstances, access to fuel, needs and willingness to pay for cleaner fuels. The key results included the household energy consumption pattern, cooking behavior, health profile, analysis of vulnerable groups and toll on human resources, which showed that about 21% of rural adults, might be having some respiratory symptoms.
Integrated Analysis of Diesel Substitutes from Oil Seeds for India: This study reviewed the entire mechanism, beginning from an overview of the best biodiesel tree plantation practices extraction and processing of oil and finally the end uses of the product. A policy framework for land availability for oil seeds plantation, minimum support price for seeds, subsidies for farmers for raising plantations, tax exemption for entrepreneurs and sale of biodiesel is suggested. Institutional mechanisms for raising nursery and plantation and for carrying out R&D are also required. Financial incentives could be provided to oil companies as they will ensure quality oil and take various types of risks. An action plan to reduce cost of production, increase financial viability and market linkages was also discussed for biodiesel production.
Sponsored by Petroleum Federation of India (PetroFed), New Delhi.
- Fuelling India’s growth vision 2030: This is a part of the continuing initiative of the Petroleum Federation of India to enhance awareness about the petroleum sector and current issues concerning it and associated industry in India. Integrated Research and Action for Development (IRADe) assisted PwC in undertaking the econometric modelling and projections for the study.
Urban Infrastructure and Services
Preparing Master Plan With Detailed Action Plan for the Development of Jodhpur City Under Solar Cities Development Program, Jodhpur (2010): The aim of this assignment is to “Prepare Master Plan” with detailed action plan for various activities for the year 2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12 during the 11th plan period for the development of Jodhpur city as a solar city, as per the specifications, guidelines, terms and conditions of the MNRE. The objective of the Master Plan is to set a goal of minimum 10% reduction in projected total demand of conventional energy at the end of five years, which is to be achieved through saving energy from energy efficiency measures and generation from renewable energy installations.
Sponsored by Jodhpur Municipal Corporation
Centre of Excellence in the area of Urban Development on “Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation” (2009)
(A) Rapid Assessment of Vulnerabilities (RAV) to Climate Change of Indian Cities
RAV is accomplished for 14 key cities in India based on various indicators of vulnerability to climate change so as to strengthen the national policy framework. IRADe’s approach and methodological framework include developing an index to assess the vulnerability to climate change of Indian cities, generating baseline data pertaining to urban development in terms of socio-economic and infrastructure aspects in order to recommend adaptation strategies, which can help in formulating efficient urban policies and programmes.
(B) Addressing Climate Resilience for Cities of India: Case Studies of Surat and Haridwar
This includes a review of city development plan of two cities, namely Surat and Haridwar. The study analyzes the potential threats of climate change and adaptation options in urban planning. Based on this analysis, some policy actions for resilience and climate change adaptation were suggested, that could be implemented by the local urban/municipal bodies. IRADe also aims to link the work to City Development Plans (CDP) and Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM)
Surat: Surat is an important commercial hub as well as one of the fastest growing cities of India. Surat is a highly flood prone city and also faces threats of sea level rise. Around 30 per cent population lives in slum without adequate infrastructure and public services. The study identified the areas of climate vulnerability and adaptations measures to be included into city development plans, and capacity of local bodies should be enhanced to ensure climate resilience.
Haridwar: The city of Haridwar, besides being a very important place of pilgrimage, is also a major destination for tourism and industries in the state of Uttarakhand. There are considerable number of migrants, tourists and pilgrims and rapid urbanization of the city. Climate change is likely to increase the intensity of the summer monsoon and lead to increased risks of flooding, water logging and landslides. IRADe’s study recommends quantifying the potential climate change impacts and adaptation options at the local level, to engage decision-makers from householders to the government, Urban local bodies (ULBs) and major corporations in and generate awareness of climate change.
Sponsored by the Ministry of Urban Development(MoUD)
Okhla Land fill : Waste Management Okhla, New Delhi (2008)
IRADe studied the gases emitted from the land-fill site of Okhla, New Delhi and analyzed whether the gases can be captured commercially as the land fill site emits methane. The assessment was done based on the observations and information provided by the Officials at Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi Pollution Control Committee, Municipal Corporation of Delhi and Okhla Landfill site. Feasibility of the Land Fill Gas (LFG) supply as domestic fuel to the surrounding areas was assessed by using the existing network in Okhla Sewage Treatment Plant.
Sponsored by United States Environmental Protection Agency – (USEPA)
Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (Gorakhpur, Surat and Indore)
IRADe offers support in developing climate resilience strategies in cities – Gorakhpur, Surat and Indore under the project Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN). This report identifies the opportunities to re-orient urban development programmes in order to address convergence points and to facilitate the development of city level climate resilience. The lessons from these are brought to national level and also appraise the city governments concerning opportunities offered by the Central Governments.
Sponsored by The Institute for Social and Environmental Transition (ISET) Colorado and Rockefeller Foundation, New York
Climate Change and Environment
- MAPS India Study on Poverty and Low Carbon Development Strategies: South South North Trust from South Africa under the initiative called MAPS, supported the work on poverty and low carbon strategies in India. It is the first of its kind work which assessed the impact of poverty alleviating measures on carbon emissions as well as impact of mitigation actions on the increase/decrease in poverty at a country level in a macroeconomic framework using IRADe activity analysis model. The work has opened a new avenue for research in low carbon development by addressing interrelationships between development, carbon emissions and mitigation actions.
The work was supported by South South North Trust from South Africa.
- Low Carbon Technologies (LCT) Implementation and Policy Issues (2009): This study analyzes Low Carbon Technologies in power, steel, cement and transportation sectors. The analysis for cement and steel sectors identified a range of potential mitigation options. A comprehensive roadmap for implementing each policy option was provided including the identification of the key factors that would be involved, the key barriers to policy implementation, and major associated co-benefits. International policies that supplement the suggested domestic policy options have also been described, along with the implications for the structure of international climate policies.
Sponsored by Centre for Clean Air Policy (CCAP), USA
ENVISION- Information system reforms at the Ministry of Environment and Forests: The key objective of “ENVISION” was to transform the functioning of the Ministry of Environment & Forests and its various constituent organizations under its purview with a business process perspective and also to transform the means of rendering services to its various stakeholders using Information Technology. IRADe was hired as the domain expert in the team of M/s Pricewaterhouse Coopers (PwC). IRADe helped to reduce delay in steps for faster delivery. MoEF has already implemented the recommendations.
Sponsored by Pricewaterhouse Coopers (PwC) through MoEF, (GoI)
GHG Reduction Potential, Sectoral Base Lines and Opportunities for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): IRADe examined the methodology of “Baselines for Renewable Energy Projects under Clean Development Mechanism” in power sector for India. The study found that India’s power sector has considerable scope for improvements in Transmission & Distribution (T&D) losses. The suggested short-term and long-term measures to reduce these include installation of appropriate conductors, capacitors, reconfiguration of the network up-gradation to high voltage transmission etc. The project also analyzed the emission profile of the European Union and Japan in power sector and hotel industry. It studied their approach to GHG reduction and their policy towards CDM.
Sponsored by The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF)
Methodology Development for climate change adaptation: IRADe has developed methodology for climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation on various components of city infrastructure. It involves City infrastructure assessment and adaptation strategy that includes sustainable management of water, storm water, Solid waste, and Health. Climate resilience requires sound Urban Design.
Supported by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD)
Climate Change and Himalayan Ecosystem Uttarakhand: IRADe is examining how agriculture, water and forests will be impacted from climate change that could lead to loss of livelihoods of poor in the Himalayan region. A variety of data and methodologies are used in the study, which include vulnerability assessment by observing indicators; sustainable livelihood approaches, IPCC projections (4th Assessment Report); Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) approach, public consultation with multi-stakeholders, etc.
Sponsored by The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Vulnerability of coastal cities on Rivers to climate change – A Case Study of Surat: In order to scientifically address the issue of climate adaptation in the context of cities located in the river basins, a multidisciplinary methodologically approach will be developed. That incorporates hydrology, socio-economic issues and urban planning issues.
Sponsored by The Ministry of Earth Science, Government of India.
- Developing CGE Model with Activity Analysis for Climate Policies for India: IRADe completed the project in October 2009.: IRADe conducted a study that aims to examine various facets of climate policies and the impact of CO2 emissions constraints on economic development and, in particular, the implications for the poor by empirically implementing an economy wide model for India.
- Climate Negotiations from Indian perspectives:
The project did international comparisons of emissions, mitigation efforts, efficiency and emissions quotas. It also outlines a number of alternative paradigms for a negotiated global climate regime; and seeks to provide input on negotiating positions, arguments, policy direction and policy principles. There are four approaches proposed in this report: 1. Three-tier approach, differentiating higher and lower emitters among the non-Annex I parties; 2. Sectoral Approach 3. CO2 Intensity (of GDP) approach and 4. Focus on Adaptation.
Sponsored by The Ministry of External Affairs, (GoI)
National circumstances for India for NATCOM
National communications (NATCOM) UNFCCC requires that each country reports her national circumstances. The contributions to NATCOM required to report on poverty, lack of infrastructure, India’s growth patterns and macro-economic scenario. The report was used for preparing India’s contribution to NATCOM. IRADe is a member of NATCOM institutions and INCCA(Indian Climate Change Association)
Sponsored by The Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF)
- Natural Resource Accounting in Goa, Phase II, under SEEA Framework (2009): IRADe did the Natural Resource Accounting for three sectors namely: 1. The tourism sector 2. Solid waste generation from municipal waste 3. Water pollution by industries. It was done using the United Nation’s SEEA framework and physical and monetary accounts for the mentioned sectors were prepared. Sponsored by Central Statistical Organization, under The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
Activity analysis model on climate policies in India (2007): IRADe formulated an activity analysis model for climate change that links economy, energy and environment. The model uses Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) to account for the inter-sectoral relationships between different sectors.
The Activity Analysis model for climate change links economy, energy and environment. The model uses Social Accounting Matrix of 2003-04 to account for the inter-sectoral relationships between different sectors of economy in general and with the energy sector in particular. The IRADe model was used to derive results based on a scenario in which costs were assumed for the autonomous energy efficiency increase (AEEI). It showed the higher level of investment needed to implement demand side management measures, and it also showed the impact of technological choice on sector wise emission reduction which was not possible in the Integrated Energy Policy Report- 2006 (IEP). The results were published in a paper in the International Journal of Energy Sector Management)
Funded by: Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Govt. of India
Poverty Alleviation and Gender
- The Energy, Poverty and Gender Nexus in Himachal Pradesh, India: The Impact of Clean Fuel Access Policy on Women’s Empowerment:
This study focused on poverty, gender and environment and health issues in Himachal Pradesh and involved a gender specific survey to address this issue. The study found women walk approximately 30 Kms in a month to collect fuel-wood. Primary survey estimated accessibility and use of clean fuel by households for 30 villages in two districts and a survey on the kerosene depots was also conducted to get the seller’s perspective of supply situation under Public Distribution System(PDS). It was found that the people in HP are willing to pay for Kerosene, the next fuel on the energy ladder above biofuels, but due to increased availability of LPG, the demand for kerosene has been on the decline. The profit margins in selling kerosene under PDS are fairly low as a result most sellers have other businesses, commonly ration shops and view this as a supplementary business. Sponsored by DFID/KAR through ENERGIA of ETC Foundation
- Gender Audit of National Energy Policies in India: This is a collaborative exercise to draw attention to the lack of gender concerns in National Energy Policies in India. The study was done by IRADe in collaboration with ENERGIA.
The Gender audit exercise was carried out to define an approach in making national energy policies more gender responsive in terms of its content and process. The key recommendations consisted of (a) Reorienting Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanisms to Reflect Gender concerns in Energy programmes, (b) Linking women’s empowerment with energy development, (c) Inter-Ministerial Coordination in addressing Energy Security and (d) Operationalizing the Goal of “Making Cooking Fuels Available within 1 Km. of Habitations”.
“Mainstreaming Gender in Energy Policy” 2006 -Background paper and presentation prepared for Expert Committee to formulate Energy Policy, Planning Commission, (GoI)The Project highlighted the gender based outcomes that included capacity building and special training to women in various institutions/Universities for making a cadre of energy professionals. Policy needs to go beyond cooking energy, and emphasis should be in providing energy for other needs for livelihood and security. Research should be pursued for development of various bio-fuels, species, cultivation practices, and appliances (stoves). Health issues included to identify and correct respiratory diseases from indoor air pollution, to reduce the daily drudgery of women so that they can spend more time on generating income. A more participatory approach to energy policy decisions will allow both men and women to be engaged in defining energy proble ms and in implementing appropriate solutions.
Agriculture and Food Security
- Demand of Natural Gas in the Indian Fertilizer Sector study 2007-08: This study entails estimation of demand for Natural Gas in the Indian Fertilizer Industry. The objective of the study is to understand the policy options of the Central Government in the face of changing fertilizer future demand and supply scenario of Natural Gas at the global level with particular emphasis on India. Sponsored by Stanford University, USA under Programme on Energy and Sustainable Development (PESD) Programme and China.
Demand, supply and subsidy analysis for Indian Fertilizer Sector: IRADe carried out this study to analyze the fertilizer demand, to access the impact of various feedstock prices, to estimate the total subsidy for the fertilizer sector, to suggest range of policy alternatives, to recommend viable policy and reform options for policy-makers for India and to carry out a comparative study of domestic policy and global fertilizers policies.
Sponsored by The Department of Chemicals & Fertilizers, (GoI)
- Extension of Minimum Support Price (MSP): Fiscal and Welfare Implications 2007-08
The Planning Commission, Government of India awarded IRADe the research project to study the implications of extending the Minimum Support Price (MSP) to more states. After the analysis of implication on the welfare of producers and consumers in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, it was recommended that MSP could be extended in many states, because, more states are growing rice and wheat than earlier. There are national gains in reduction in transport of grains and more equitable benefit of government policies.
Sponsored by The Planning Commission, (GoI)